Petroleum, natural gas, coal, renewable energy, and nuclear electric power are primary energy sources in the United States. Electricity is a secondary energy source that is generated from primary energy sources.

Domestic energy production is equal to about 91% of U.S. energy consumption

The three major fossil fuels—petroleum, natural gas, and coal—accounted for most of the nation's energy production in 2016:In 2016, energy produced in the United States was equal to about 83.9 quadrillion Btu, which was equal to about 86% of U.S. energy consumption. The difference between production and consumption was mainly in net imports of petroleum.

How much petroleum does the United States import and export?

In 2016, the United States imported approximately 10.1 million barrels per day (MMb/d) of petroleum from about 70 countries. Petroleum includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, liquefied refinery gases, refined petroleum products such as gasoline and diesel fuel, and biofuels including ethanol and biodiesel. About 78% of gross petroleum imports were crude oil.

In 2016, the United States exported about 5.2 MMb/d of petroleum to 101 countries. Most of the exports were petroleum products. The resulting net imports (imports minus exports) of petroleum were about 4.9 MMb/d.

The top five source countries of U.S. petroleum imports in 2016 were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Mexico, and Colombia.  

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December 2017
U.S. Oil Imports Plunge: Last week, net oil imports, including crude oil and refined products, reached a 27-year low as America’s march towards energy dominance continues. Net imports were just 1.77 million barrels per day, an 87% decline from the 14 million barrels per day high in 2005. Amazingly, we’re now on pace to break import records not seen since before the 1973 oil embargo. The decline is the result of several factors, including new records being set in both crude oil exports and gasoline exports, as well as domestic oil production remaining at near-record highs. As the largest consumer of oil, the shifting dynamics of the U.S. market have a profound impact on global markets. 

June 2018

The US fossil fuel industry is having a positive impact on the trade deficit by reducing oil imports and establishing a growing LNG (liquefied natural gas) export role. The EIA forecasts that total U.S. crude oil and petroleum product net imports will fall from an annual average of 3.7 million b/d in 2017 to an average of 2.5 million b/d in 2018 and to 1.6 million b/d in 2019, which would be the lowest level of net oil imports since 1959. Meanwhile U.S. dry natural gas production which averaged 73.6 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in 2017 is forecasted to average 81.2 Bcf/d in 2018, establishing a new record. EIA expects natural gas production will rise again in 2019 to 83.8 Bcf/d. The growth in natural gas production is spurring the emerging LNG export industry which averaged 1.9 Bcf/d in 2017. EIA forecasts LNG exports to average 3.0 Bcf/d in 2018 and 5.1 Bcf/d in 2019.